Syn.: Galium brandegei A. Gray, Galium ruprechtii Pobed.
Family: Rubiaceae Juss.
Galium trifidum
Distribution: Circumpolar, arctic-alpine taxon. Found in most of North America, all Canada, US with exception of southeast states, Greenland, eastern and northern Asia (Kamchatka, Japan, Korea, Siberia), northern Europe, very rarely occurs even in Poland and France. Within the widespread G. trifidum some authors recognize several subspecies.
Ecology: Moist wooded areas, mainly in marshy grounds and bogs, close to water. Blooms from June to August.
Galium trifidum
Description: Perennial herb with weak, trailing stem, 10–30 cm long, square in crosscut, numerous branches, forming mats, stems hairy. Leaves growing in whorls of 4, linear to spatulate, 6–14 mm long, 1–3.5 mm wide, with short stalks, undersides hairy. Flowers in cymes, 2–3 flowered, from leaf axils. Flowers greenish white, 3–10 mm across; sepals 3, petals 3, stamens 4, pistil 1. Fruit is a nutlet, 1–2 mm, growing in pairs.
Threat and protection: This species is classified as endangered species in the US state of New Jersey, in Poland as a vulnerable species, in France it is protected by law.
Galium trifidum
Galium trifidum
These images were taken in Canada, Alberta, South Glenmore Park (July 2013).