Syn.: Elasmatium repens (L.) Dulac, Epipactis repens Crantz, Goodyera marginata Lindl., Neottia repens (L.) Sw., Orchiodes marginatum (Lindl.) Kuntze, Orchiodes repens (L.) Kuntze, Orchis repens (L.) Eyster ex Poir., Peramium repens Salisb., Satyrium repens L., Serapias repens (L.) Vill.
Family: Orchidaceae Juss.
Goodyera repens
Distribution: Circumpolar in Europe, Asia and North America. In the Old World it is found from Spain through central Europe to Russian Federation, in Asia from Altay through China to Japan and Nepal. In North America it is found from Alaska across all Canadian provinces and Territories with exception of Nunavut and in US in Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, South Dakota, along the Great Lakes to Maine and south to Tennessee and North Carolina. Two varieties are recognized in North America, G. r. var. repens with plain green leaves and G. r. var. ophioides, with white reticulated leaves, however, there are intermediate forms, which put this classification in doubt. In western Canada you can find plain green and faintly reticulated leaves growing sympatrically.
Ecology: Moist, shady, wooded areas, usually in moss or in humus soil, or bogs, 0–3800 m. Blooms in July and August.
Description: Perennial herb, flowering 10–30 cm tall, erect, from fleshy rhizomes. Basal leaves in a rosette, narrowly to broadly ovate, 1–3 × 0.5–2 cm, apex acute or obtuse, plain green or reticulated by white veins, either vividly or faintly. Inflorescence is a single spike, unilateral or loosely spiral, 7–36-flowered, peduncle 3–18 cm; flowers white, upper sepal fused with lateral petals forming a hood; lateral sepals 3–5.2 mm; lip sac-like, pointed, tip reflexed, inner surface with 2 or 4 glandular ridges, pollinia blunt, viscidium round, stigma beak forked. Fruit is a capsule, about 8 mm long.
Threat and protection: States of Maryland and Massachusetts list this species as endangered as it is in many states of Europe (Czechia, Slovakia, Serbia, Ukraine, etc). Otherwise it is protected by CITES as all orchids.
Goodyera repens
Goodyera repensGoodyera repens
Goodyera repens
Goodyera repensGoodyera repens
These images were taken in Slovakia, Malá Fatra Mts., Podrozsutec (by Zdeněk Podešva: July 28, 2003), and Canada, Alberta, Calgary, Griffith Woods Park (by Karel Bergmann: July 7, 2012 and July 11, 2015).